Poetry of Tang Dynasty(唐詩); The Four Friends of the Study(文房四友); paper(紙); writing brush(筆); inkstick(墨); inkstone(硯)
한중언어문화연구, no.37, pp.149 - 174
Since Tang Dynasty, the poetic words by personification of Four Precious Things have been used in prose. From this, I undertook to figure out: How Metaphor was made use of in the poetry of The Four Friends of the Study; Whether the rhetoric in prose appears again in poetry, or whether there are other particular rhetoric. It would be too abstract to examine the Chinese poetry in all ages, so I narrowed it to the Tang Dynasty selecting 52 poems of ‘paper, writing brush, ink-stick, and ink-stone’. There are 15 poems of paper, 12 of writing brush, 4 of ink-stick, and 21 of ink-stone. Except for the three poems which were counted twice, the primary sources in this study are 49 poems. The poets from Wei-Jin the Southern and Northern Dynasties and Tang Dynasty used simile and metaphor most. They described The Four Friends of the Study by making use of comparison and hyperbole, or sometimes by way of personification. But there are some cases that all the above rhetoric were synthetically used. From the fact that there were personifications in poetry, I drew a conclusion that poetic words from the personification of The Four Friends of the Study have been universally used since the middle and late Tang Dynasty and more universalized in the Song Dynasty.