The Association between Metabolic Syndrome or Chronic Kidney Disease and Hearing Thresholds in Koreans: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012
- The Association between Metabolic Syndrome or Chronic Kidney Disease and Hearing Thresholds in Koreans: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2012
- 강석휘; 정다정[정다정]; 조규향; 박종원; 윤경우; 도준영
- CHRONIC-RENAL-FAILURE; RISK-FACTORS; US ADULTS; GENERAL-POPULATION; UNITED-STATES; INNER-EAR; IMPAIRMENT; PREVALENCE; MEN; HYPERFILTRATION
- Issue Date
- PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
- PLOS ONE, v.10, no.3
- Background The aim of this study was to determine whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hearing thresholds in the general Korean population. Patients and Methods A total of 16,554 participants were included in this study. MetS was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or a dipstick protein-uria result of >= 1+. The hearing thresholds were measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Low-frequency (Freq) was defined as pure-tone averages at 0.5 and 1 kHz, while Mid-Freq and High-Freq were defined as the average thresholds at mid-frequency (2 and 3 kHz) and high frequency (4 and 6 kHz), respectively. Results In men, the hearing thresholds were 15.1 +/- 14.5 dB, 22.2 +/- 21.3 dB, and 37.3 +/- 26.5 dB for Low-, Mid-, and High-Freq, respectively. In women, the hearing thresholds were 14.9 +/- 15.3 dB, 16.6 +/- 18.0 dB, and 26.1 +/- 21.5 dB for Low-, Mid-, and High-Freq, respectively. The hearing thresholds for men were significantly higher than the hearing thresholds for women in all 3 threshold categories. Male and female subjects with MetS or CKD had higher hearing thresholds than the subjects that did not have these disorders. In the multivariate analysis, MetS was associated with increased hearing thresholds in women, and CKD was associated with increased hearing thresholds in men and women. Conclusion MetS is associated with hearing thresholds in women, and CKD is associated with hearing thresholds in men and women. Therefore, patients with MetS or CKD should be closely monitored for hearing impairment.
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