바실리 칸딘스키(Wassily Kandinsky); 칸딘스키의 삼각형(Kandinsky’s Triangle); 신지학(Theosophy); 러시아 상징주의(Russian Symbolism); 헬레나 블라바츠키(Helena Blavatsky); 루돌프 슈타이너(Rudolf Steiner); 블라디미르 솔로비요프(Vladimir S. Solovyov)
현대미술사연구, no.35, pp.181 - 202
Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), one of the pioneer abstractionists, is known as a logical theorist. In a closer reading of his masterpiece Concerning the Spiritual in Art (1912), there is a keyword “triangle” that is discovered repeatedly. In other words, “triangle” refers to “spirituality”, this “spiritual triangle” is moving forward, and this movement is in process in apocalyptic mood.
This study focused on the triangle of Kandinsky and reviewed Christianity, theosophy, Russian Orthodox Church and Russian symbolism, the ideological backgrounds of the triangle theory. The triangles found in study paintings by Kandinsky (about 1910) have spiritual meanings like the sacred mountain being come upon the Holy Spirit in ‘the Last Supper’(1910). Kandinsky particularly emphasizes the movement of triangle that goes forward, which becomes a motif of a castle city upon the mountain hill and a knight on horse in his apocalyptic paintings(1911-1914). In short, the castle on the mountain that was depicted as the Moscow Kremlin refers to the spirituality that will be introduced in a new era of the city of heaven, Jerusalem. Like the triangle moving forward towards the top, the knight on horse is running briskly to the castle or the tall-standing tower onthe mountain as a prophet who delivers spirituality.
In the works by Kandinsky in his transition period towards abstract, the triangle has a very significant meaning, which is reconfirmed in Retrospect (1924) in Bauhaus time when he reached to the pure geometric abstraction. The painting reminds of ‘Small Pleasures’(1913), as it positions a mountain within a black line border at the center of the canvas and geometric patterns of triangles and round towers straight up on the mountain. The spiritual triangle pursued by Kandinsky in Retrospect that he drew literally as he looked back on his past is rising high up to the area of the heaven.