Huang Tingjian; the poems on Calligraphy; Calligraphy Aesthetic View; Learning of calligraphy; Evaluation of calligraphy; Theory of Calligraphy; Quansongshi: Complete poetry of the Song; 黃庭堅; 書藝詩; 書藝觀; 學書; 品書; 論書; 全宋詩
중국어문학, no.69, pp.59 - 83
Huang Ting-jian (黄庭堅, 1045~1105) was one of the most prominent writers in the Song Dynasty as a head of the Jiang-xi school of poetry (江西詩派), and well known as a calligrapher who had the most extraordinary and unique style of handwriting. Since Huang Ting-jian was a writer and a great calligrapher, he wrote more than a few poems that can be categorized as calligraphic poetry, which well contained his theory of calligraphy. Among the poems written by Huang Ting-jian, those categorized into calligraphic poetry were 50 pieces under 45 titles, which are divided into three sections of learning of calligraphy, evaluation of calligraphy and theory of calligraphy. At first, Huang Ting-jian put relatively many focuses on whom to teach and how to study in starting calligraphy. Huang Ting-jian put Wang xizhi as the best model of learning calligraphy and considered Zhong you(鍾繇), Wei dan(韋誕), Zhang zhi(張芝), Zhi yong(智永), Yan zhenqing(顔眞卿), Yang ningshi(楊凝式) and Li jianzhong(李建中). The calligraphic poetry by Huang Ting-jian includes the comparison and evaluation of the handwriting style of the master calligrapher Wang xizhi(王羲之) as well as Wang xianzhi(王獻之), Zhang zhi(張芝) and Yiheming(瘞鶴銘) with large letters, and comments on the handwriting style of celebrities, such as calligraphers in the Song Dynasty including Li jianzhong(李建中), Wang yucheng(王禹稱), Su shunyuan(蘇舜元), Su shunqin(蘇舜欽), Wang anshi(王安石), Su shi(蘇軾) and Mi fu(米芾). The calligraphic poetry by Huang Ting-jian included the learning and criticism of calligraphic works as well as the theory of calligraphy implicitly. Huang Ting-jian focused on expressing inner consciousness[神似] by emphasizing the superb spirit and ignored describing the appearance[形似]; claimed the handwriting style that unites the heart and hand; and emphasized the importance to make every effort to learn calligraphy from the beginning to form a school on your own. Such claims were consistent in his theory of calligraphy.