Heavy metals in the Indian atmosphere: A review

Heavy metals in the Indian atmosphere: A review
air quality; ambient air; atmospheric pollution; bioaccumulation; heavy metal; pollution monitoring; pollution policy; urban pollution; India
Issue Date
Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, v.18, no.8, pp.99 - 110
This study reviews the air quality in Indian metropolitan cities in terms of the heavy metal concentrations. Most Western countries were industrialized in the 19th century and/or early 20th century. On the other hand, in Asia, countries, such as India and China, were industrialized in the latter years of the 20th century. Western countries were more aware about air pollution than Asian countries. They implemented environmental friendly policies, such as the Euro standards, to control the air pollutants in their countries. Asian countries are further away from implementing such standards to control the air pollution than the Western countries. India is the second most populous country in the world with more than 1.2 billion people. This huge population and industrialization makes air pollution a challenging task for environmental researchers in India. A review of the status of heavy metal concentrations reported in Indian cities since 2000 is necessary to provide a clear picture of the ambient air quality in Indian cities with respect to the heavy metal content in ambient air. The monitoring of heavy metals is attracting considerable attention from environmental researchers because of the inclusion of heavy metals such as chromium and arsenic as group 1 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). This paper presents the sources, toxicity, biological importance and ambient air concentrations of heavy metals in several Indian cities reported since 2000.
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