Verification of an optimized stimulation point on the abdominal wall for transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation for activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles
- Verification of an optimized stimulation point on the abdominal wall for transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation for activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles
- 안상호; 백승옥; 조희경[조희경]; 정길수; 손수민; 조윤우
- LOW-BACK-PAIN; MULTIFIDUS MUSCLE; STRENGTH; SPINE; RECRUITMENT; DISABILITY; MOVEMENT; PEOPLE; SYSTEM
- Issue Date
- ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
- SPINE JOURNAL, v.14, no.9, pp.2178 - 2183
- BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can stimulate contractions in deep lumbar stabilizing muscles. An optimal protocol has not been devised for the activation of these muscles by NMES, and information is lacking regarding an optimal stimulation point on the abdominal wall. PURPOSE: The goal was to determine a single optimized stimulation point on the abdominal wall for transcutaneous NMES for the activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles. STUDY DESIGN: Ultrasound images of the spinal stabilizing muscles were captured during NMES at three sites on the lateral abdominal wall. After an optimal location for the placement of the electrodes was determined, changes in the thickness of the lumbar multifidus (LM) were measured during NMES. METHODS: Three stimulation points were investigated using 20 healthy physically active male volunteers. A reference point R, 1 cm superior to the iliac crest along the midaxillary line, was used. Three study points were used: stimulation point S1 was located 2 cm superior and 2 cm medial to the anterior superior iliac spine, stimulation point S3 was 2 cm below the lowest rib along the same sagittal plane as S1, and stimulation point S2 was midway between S1 and S3. Sessions were conducted stimulating at S1, S2, or S3 using R for reference. Real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI) of the abdominal muscles was captured during each stimulation session. In addition, RUSI images were captured of the LM during stimulation at S1. RESULTS: Thickness, as measured by RUSI, of the transverse abdominis (TrA), obliquus internus, and obliquus externus was greater during NMES than at rest for all three study points (p < .05). Transverse abdominis was significantly stimulated more by NMES at S1 than at the other points (p < .05). The LM thickness was also significantly greater during NMES at S1 than at rest (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation at S1 optimally activated deep spinal stabilizing muscles, TrA and LM, as evidenced by RUSI. The authors recommend this optimal stimulation point be used for NMES in the course of lumbar spine stabilization training in patients having difficulty initiating contraction of these muscles. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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