Production of a major stilbene phytoalexin, resveratrol in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and peanut products: a mini review
- Production of a major stilbene phytoalexin, resveratrol in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and peanut products: a mini review
- 비벡바지파이; 모히둘하산; 차미정; 백광현
- HAIRY ROOT CULTURES; TRANS-RESVERATROL; ABIOTIC STRESSES; PICEID CONTENTS; SYNTHASE GENE; ULTRASOUND; KERNELS; GRAPES; PLANTS; UV
- Issue Date
- REVIEWS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND BIO-TECHNOLOGY, v.12, no.3, pp.209 - 221
- As a major stilbene phytoalexin, resveratrol is produced or elicited in several plant species as a part of defense systems protecting plants against diseases. Resveratrol can be present in both the trans- and cis-isomeric forms, and only the trans-form increases the life expectancy and lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases as the most bioactive form. In addition to the usages for diet and industry, peanut plant (Arachis hypogaea) and peanuts are getting higher attention due to their containment of resveratrol in the kernels and other parts of peanut plant, such as leaves, roots, and peanut shell. Recently, natural resveratrol derived from peanuts has also become a promising nutraceutical agent, promoting human health. Resveratrol has also been detected in peanut products including peanut butters, roasted peanuts, and boiled peanuts. Although, smaller and immature peanuts contain higher levels of resveratrol than mature peanuts, resveratrol in peanuts can also be preserved by cooking or manufacturing processes. Moreover, the amount of resveratrol in peanut plants and peanuts has been found to increase by external stimuli including microbial infection, wounding, UV light irradiation, ultrasonication, yeast extract treatment and by plant stress hormones. In addition, molecular level analysis has confirmed that four resveratrol synthase (RS) genes (RS1, RS2, RS3 and RS4) which catalyze synthesis of resveratrol have been identified in peanuts, and up-regulation of the genes is positively correlated to the increased contents of resveratrol. In this review, we summarize the natural biosynthesis of resveratrol in peanuts and peanut plants, as well as the occurrence of this natural phytoalexin in various peanut products. A brief knowledge on the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol synthesis has been described. This review also deals on highlighting the effect of various external stimuli (biotic and abiotic stresses) in order to achieve the maximum induction and/or elicitation of resveratrol in peanuts and peanut plants.
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