We demonstrate the use of a hybrid microfluidic-micro-optical system for the screening of enzymatic activity at the single cell level. Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase activity is revealed by a fluorogenic assay in 100 pl droplets. Individual droplets containing cells are screened by measuring their fluorescence signal using a high-speed camera. The measurement is parallelized over 100 channels equipped with microlenses and analyzed by image processing. A reinjection rate of 1 ml of emulsion per minute was reached corresponding to more than 10(5) droplets per second, an analytical throughput larger than those obtained using flow cytometry. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.