A Broader Nationalism in “Cyclops”: Joyce’s Bloom and Casement
- A Broader Nationalism in “Cyclops”: Joyce’s Bloom and Casement
- 보다 광의적 민족주의; 케이스먼트; “키클롭스; ” 부활절 봉기; 그리피쓰; 조이스; 얼스터 프로테스탄트; broader nationalism; Casement; “Cyclops; ” Easter Rising; Griffith; Joyce; Ulster Protestant
- Issue Date
- 제임스조이스저널, v.19, no.2, pp.5 - 28
- Roger Casement, who was famous for two reports about the Congo and the Putumayo atrocities, written in 1903 and 1910 respectively, is mentioned as the author of the Congo Report and identified as Irish in the “Cyclops” episode in Ulysses. Often mistaken as British, the once-British consul Casement was officially recognized as the Irish nationalist through his execution for the conspiracy of the Easter Rising with Germany in 1916. In this context, the Citizen’s identification of Casement as Irish in “Cyclops,” set in 1904 but written two years after the 1916 Rebellion, is not only anachronistic but also suggests Joyce’s acknowledgment of Casement’s place in the Irish nationalist movement as well as in the international humanitarian movement. Joyce’s concern about or respect for Casement is also evidenced by the fact that, apart from his name and nationality referred to regarding the Congo report, nothing about his revolutionary career and execution—about the Black Diaries or his alleged homosexuality—is hinted at in Ulysses.
On the other hand, Casement’s nationalist thoughts, distinct from Southern or Catholic Nationalism, are represented by Joyce’s main character Bloom in the book. The Ulster Protestant Casement who, unlike most Ulstermen resisting Home Rule, worked with Catholic Nationalists believed in a broader concept of the Irish nation, specifically comprising both the Northern Protestants and Southern Catholics. His idea of nation is well voiced by the Jewish Bloom, who was originally from Hungary and declares that his nation is Ireland. By necessity, Casement advocated unity and “love” instead of intolerance and “force” among the Irishmen just as Bloom stresses “love” in “Cyclops.” In short, Casement supported neither British Imperialism nor Irish Nationalism. Only in the face of the Imperial War that drove the Irishmen to death was he forced to choose the latter, the Easter Rebellion, as the lesser evil, just as Bloom is driven to give the Citizen a “soft answer,” which turns the position of the Citizen into that of the English: Nationalism is equated with Imperialism in “Cyclops.”
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