Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study

Title
Mobile Phone Use, Blood Lead Levels, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children: A Longitudinal Study
Author(s)
사공준변윤환[변윤환]하미나[하미나]권호장[권호장]홍윤철[홍윤철]임종한[임종한]김수영[김수영]이철갑[이철갑]강동묵[강동묵]최형도[최형도]김남[김남]
Keywords
RADIOFREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC-FIELDS; BRAIN-BARRIER PERMEABILITY; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM; DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER; RADIATION-EXPOSURE; CELL DAMAGE; FLOW; NEURODEVELOPMENT; METAANALYSIS; ADOLESCENTS
Issue Date
201303
Publisher
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
Citation
PLOS ONE, v.8, no.3
Abstract
Background: Concerns have developed for the possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to children's brains. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the association between mobile phone use and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) considering the modifying effect of lead exposure. Methods: A total of 2,422 children at 27 elementary schools in 10 Korean cities were examined and followed up 2 years later. Parents or guardians were administered a questionnaire including the Korean version of the ADHD rating scale and questions about mobile phone use, as well as socio-demographic factors. The ADHD symptom risk for mobile phone use was estimated at two time points using logistic regression and combined over 2 years using the generalized estimating equation model with repeatedly measured variables of mobile phone use, blood lead, and ADHD symptoms, adjusted for covariates. Results: The ADHD symptom risk associated with mobile phone use for voice calls but the association was limited to children exposed to relatively high lead. Conclusions: The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to lead and RF from mobile phone use was associated with increased ADHD symptom risk, although possible reverse causality could not be ruled out.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/YU.REPOSITORY/26203http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059742
ISSN
1932-6203
Appears in Collections:
의과대학 > 예방의학교실 > Articles
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