Studies Leading to the Development of a Single-Electron Transfer (SET) Photochemical Strategy for Syntheses of Macrocyclic Polyethers, Polythioethers, and Polyamides

Title
Studies Leading to the Development of a Single-Electron Transfer (SET) Photochemical Strategy for Syntheses of Macrocyclic Polyethers, Polythioethers, and Polyamides
Author(s)
조대원윤웅찬[윤웅찬]Patrick S. Mariano[Patrick S. Mariano]
Keywords
POLYDONOR-SUBSTITUTED PHTHALIMIDES; PHOTOCYCLIZATION REACTIONS; ELECTROCHEMICAL OXIDATION; ORGANOSILICON COMPOUNDS; MACROBICYCLIC LIGAND; FUSED IMIDAZOLIDINES; TEMPLATE SYNTHESIS; CYCLIC-PEPTIDES; METAL CATION; CROWN-ETHERS
Issue Date
201103
Publisher
AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Citation
ACCOUNTS OF CHEMICAL RESEARCH, v.44, no.3, pp.204 - 215
Abstract
Organic photochemists began to recognize in the 1970s that a new mechanistic pathway involving excited-state single-electron transfer (SET) could be used to drive unique photochemical reactions. Arnold's seminal studies demonstrated that SET photochemical reactions proceed by way of ion radical intermediates, the properties of which govern the nature of the ensuing reaction pathways. Thus, in contrast to classical photochemical reactions, SET-promoted excited-state processes are controlled by the nature and rates of secondary reactions of intermediate ion radicals. In this Account, we discuss our work in harnessing SET pathways for photochemical synthesis, focusing on the successful production of macrocyclic polyethers, polythioethers, and polyamides. One major thrust of our studies in SET photochemistry has been to develop new, efficient reactions that can be used for the preparation of important natural and non-natural substances. Our efforts with alpha-silyl donor-tethered phthalimides and naphthalimides have led to the discovery of efficient photochemical processes in which excited-state SET is followed by regioselective formation of carbon-centered radicals. The radical formation takes place through nucleophile-assisted desilylation of intermediate alpha-silyl-substituted ether-, thioether-, amine-, and amide-centered cation radicals. Early laser flash photolysis studies demonstrated that the rates of methanol- and water-promoted bimolecular desilylations of cation radicals (derived from alpha-silyl electron donors) exceeded the rates of other cation radical alpha-fragmentation processes, such as alpha-deprotonation. In addition, mechanistic analyses of a variety of SET-promoted photocyclization reactions of alpha-silyl polydonor-linked phthalimides and naphthalimides showed that the chemical and quantum efficiencies of the processes are highly dependent on the lengths and types of the chains connecting the imide acceptor and alpha-silyl electron donor centers. We also observed that reaction efficiencies are controlled by the rates of desilylation at the alpha-silyl donor cation radical moieties in intermediate zwitterionic biradicals that are formed by either direct excited-state intramolecular SET or by SET between the donor sites in the intervening chains. It is important to note that knowledge about how these factors govern product yields, regiochemical selectivities, and quantum efficiencies was crucial for the design of synthetically useful photochemical reactions of linked polydonor-acceptor substrates. The fruits of these insights are exemplified by synthetic applications in the concise preparation of cyclic peptide mimics, crown ethers and their lariat- and bis-analogs, and substances that serve as fluorescence sensors for important heavy metal cations.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/YU.REPOSITORY/25556http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar100125j
ISSN
0001-4842
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이과대학 > 화학생화학부 > Articles
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