Indole and 3-indolylacetonitrile inhibit spore maturation in Paenibacillus alvei

Title
Indole and 3-indolylacetonitrile inhibit spore maturation in Paenibacillus alvei
Author(s)
이진태조무환김용규[김용규]이진형
Keywords
ESCHERICHIA-COLI; BACILLUS-SUBTILIS; BIOFILM FORMATION; STIGMATELLA-AURANTIACA; L-TRYPTOPHAN; SIGNAL; SPORULATION; EXPRESSION; RESISTANCE; BACTERIA
Issue Date
201105
Publisher
BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Citation
BMC MICROBIOLOGY, v.11
Abstract
Background: Bacteria use diverse signaling molecules to ensure the survival of the species in environmental niches. A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole that functions as an intercellular signal controlling diverse aspects of bacterial physiology. Results: In this study, we sought a novel role of indole in a Gram-positive bacteria Paenibacillus alvei that can produce extracellular indole at a concentration of up to 300 mu M in the stationary phase in Luria-Bertani medium. Unlike previous studies, our data show that the production of indole in P. alvei is strictly controlled by catabolite repression since the addition of glucose and glycerol completely turns off the indole production. The addition of exogenous indole markedly inhibits the heat resistance of P. alvei without affecting cell growth. Observation of cell morphology with electron microscopy shows that indole inhibits the development of spore coats and cortex in P. alvei. As a result of the immature spore formation of P. alvei, indole also decreases P. alvei survival when exposed to antibiotics, low pH, and ethanol. Additionally, indole derivatives also influence the heat resistance; for example, a plant auxin, 3-indolylacetonitrile dramatically (2900-fold) decreased the heat resistance of P. alvei, while another auxin 3-indoleacetic acid had a less significant influence on the heat resistance of P. alvei. Conclusions: Together, our results demonstrate that indole and plant auxin 3-indolylacetonitrile inhibit spore maturation of P. alvei and that 3-indolylacetonitrile presents an opportunity for the control of heat and antimicrobial resistant spores of Gram-positive bacteria.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/YU.REPOSITORY/25242http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2180-11-119
ISSN
1471-2180
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공과대학 > 화학공학부 > Articles
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