이탈리아 반파시스트 민주주의 정치 이념의 구성-카를로 로셀리의 자유주의적 사회주의-
- 이탈리아 반파시스트 민주주의 정치 이념의 구성-카를로 로셀리의 자유주의적 사회주의-
- Other Titles
- The Formation of a Political Idea of Antifascist Democracy in Italy: Carlo Rosselli’s Liberal Socialism
- 카를로 로셀리(Carlo Rosselli); 정의와 자유(Justice and Liberty); 파시즘(Fascism); 반파시즘(Antifascism); 자유주의적 사회주의(Liberal Socialism)
- Issue Date
- 서양사론, no.109, pp.74 - 106
- It is said that the Italian fascism was an expression of historical negativity revealing its own attitudes of the ‘anti’ to the main political ideologies, in particular liberalism and socialism. In contrast,an Italian antifascist democratic idea can be regarded as an expression of historical positivity in that it included the various political ideologies, a political idea of an antifascist activist Carlo Rosselli and his Justice and Liberty, for instance. He aimed to pave the way for the democratic front in Italy amalgamating liberalism and socialism.
But it seems that his attempt to form the broad antifascist and non-communist democratic front, indeed, was proved so strait a way.
This essay looks into the process by in which Rosselli and the Justice and Liberty developed the heretical formulation of a “liberal socialism” following the gradual stages of his idea and action, i.e.,the “romantic,” the “revolutionary” and the “classist” stages.
During the “romantic” stage, Rosselli tried to overcome the Marxist determinism embracing the “revisionisms” suggested by Eduard Bernstein, Georges Sorel and Benedetto Croce. And at the same time, the Justice and Liberty successfully organized the multiple cells in Italy in pursuit of becoming a revolutionary movement, not a political party. During the “revolutionary” stage,Rosselli tried to substantialize the political program of a liberal socialism facing the bitter critiques which considered his ideas neither liberal nor socialist. And the Justice and Liberty took part in the Italian Antifascist Concentration, but conflicted with the trends supporting the PSI and PCI. Finally, during the “classist” stage,Rosselli tried to form the broad antifascist popular front including communists emphasizing the proletarian movement. But his “proletarian unitary party” remained with the ambivalent political proposition as he and his brother, Nello, were brutally assassinated in France.
Indeed, Rosselli and his Justice and Liberty revealed their own limits by suggesting the ambivalent formulation of a liberal socialism and by trying to exclude the remarkable antifascist political forces of Marxism and Communism. The Justice and Liberty including the later Action Party, paradoxically, became a source of split while they heartily asked for a political unity in the Italian antifascist camp.
However, it cannot be forgotten that they faced the very difficult mission under the national and international conditions where the political conflicts between Fascism and Communism and later between liberal democracy (CD) and Communism (PCI) were so acute. Then what is their legacy? Nothing could better illustrate their effectiveness than the present concerns and the debates about Rosselli’s ambitious political and intellectual project.
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