平反; 武訓; 武訓傳; 胡喬木; 『武訓歷史調査記』; Reappraisal; Wuxun; “the Life of Wuxun”; Hu Qiaomu; “the investigation of the history of Wuxun”; Reappraisal; Wuxun; “the Life of Wuxun”; Hu Qiaomu; “the investigation of the history of Wuxun”
대구사학, v.104, pp.165 - 200
I examined the concrete process of the reappraisal of Wuxun and “the life of Wuxun” instead of focusing on the general understanding of the reappraisal after Post-Mao period. Wuxun’s specific experience might have explained my start point. Wuxun(1838-1896) was a self-made man who built the charity schools by the begging in the late Qing period. After the establishment of “the New China”(新中國), the movie which covered his whole life was produced immediately. At first, the movie enjoyed the very high popularity both from the mass and the leader of the Chinese Communist Party. But because of the opposition of Mao’s, the sudden criticism movement against that movie was started. However the evaluation was dramatically again reversed in the reformation and evolution period.
I tried to investigate the political, academical and ideological process surrounding the criticism and re-criticism against Wuxun and “the life of Wuxun.” So I confirmed not only the phenomena of the subordination of the academical research and the cultural art to the politics but also the harmful effect that was brought out by this “politicalization.” Wuxun and the producers of “the life of Wuxun” were the political victims by the Party that tried to establish the foundation of the new nation through the ideological struggle. It was natural in this context that “the investigation of the history of Wuxun”(武訓歷史調査記) be unrealistic and arbitrary.
So, the reappraisal of Wuxun or “the life of Wuxun” could not but begin from “the investigation of the history of Wuxun.” The content of that book was completely denied by the members who directly participated in the very investigation. The former insistence that Wuxun should be “the big gangster” “the big leech” “the big landowner” was not persuasive any more. This only meant the reappraisal of Wuxun. Also the reappraisal of “the life of Wuxun” was basically done by the self criticism and the self denial of the producers.
Meanwhile, the reappraisal of Tao Xingzhi(陶行知) was closely related with that of Wuxun. Because he was the enthusiastic praiser of Wuxun, he was also criticised. But he was also transformed from “the revisionist” “the pragmatist” to “the great progressive educator” “the great democratic warrior” “the great patriot” in the process of the reappraisal of Wuxun.
The reappraisal deserved to gain the positive evaluation in that this trial would correct the former fault and the distortion. But the influence of the Hu Qiaomu(胡喬木) on the that reappraisal paradoxically verified that the appraisal of the past was not still free from the political judgement and behavior.