Impairment of Concept Formation Ability in Children with ADHD: Comparisons between Lower Grades and Higher Grades

Title
Impairment of Concept Formation Ability in Children with ADHD: Comparisons between Lower Grades and Higher Grades
Author(s)
이종범김진성서완석구본훈홍혜정배대석정진영
Keywords
ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER; CARD SORTING TEST; WORKING-MEMORY; EXECUTIVE FUNCTION; HETEROGENEITY; METAANALYSIS; PERFORMANCE
Issue Date
201007
Publisher
KOREAN NEUROPSYCHIATRIC ASSOC
Citation
PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION, v.7, no.3, pp.177 - 188
Abstract
Objective We investigated executive functions (EFs), as evaluated by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and other EF between lower grades (LG) and higher grades (HG) in elementary-school-age attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Methods We classified a sample of 112 ADHD children into 4 groups (composed of 28 each) based on age (LG vs. HG) and WCST performance [lower vs. higher performance on WCST, defined by the number of completed categories (CC)] Participants in each group were matched according to age, gender, ADHD subtype, and intelligence. We used the Wechsler intelligence Scale for Children 3rd edition to test intelligence and the Computerized Neurocognitive Function Test-IV, which included the WCST, to test EF. Results Comparisons of EFs scores in LG ADHD children showed statistically significant differences in performing digit spans backward, some verbal learning scores, including all memory scores, and Stroop test scores. However, comparisons of EF scores in HG ADHD children did not show any statistically significant differences. Correlation analyses of the CC and EF variables and stepwise multiple regression analysis in LG ADHD children showed a combination of the backward form of the Digit span test and Visual span test in lower-performance ADHD participants significantly predicted the number of CC (R(2)=0.273, p<0.001). Conclusion This study suggests that the design of any battery of neuropsychological tests for measuring EF in ADHD children should first consider age before interpreting developmental variations and neuropsychological test results. Researchers should consider the dynamics of relationships within EF, as measured by neuropsychological tests. Psychiatry lnvestig 2010;7:177-188
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/YU.REPOSITORY/23941http://dx.doi.org/10.4306/pi.2010.7.3.177
ISSN
1738-3684
Appears in Collections:
의과대학 > 정신건강의학교실 > Articles
의과대학 > 정신과학교실 > Articles
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