Upregulation of Cyclooxygenase-2 by 4-Nonylphenol is Mediated Through the Cyclic Amp Response Element Activation Pathway

Title
Upregulation of Cyclooxygenase-2 by 4-Nonylphenol is Mediated Through the Cyclic Amp Response Element Activation Pathway
Author(s)
한은희[한은희]황용필[황용필]김형균[김형균]박진희[박진희]정태천정혜광[정혜광]
Keywords
ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS; MESSENGER-RNA EXPRESSION; FACTOR-KAPPA-B; GENE-TRANSCRIPTION; BINDING PROTEIN; MURINE MACROPHAGES; SIGNALING PATHWAYS; PROMOTER ELEMENTS; KINASE; CANCER
Issue Date
201011
Publisher
TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC
Citation
JOURNAL OF TOXICOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH-PART A-CURRENT ISSUES, v.73, no.21-22, pp.1451 - 1464
Abstract
The organic compound nonylphenol (NP) belongs to the family of alkylphenols and is a product of industrial synthesis formed during phenol alkylation. Nonylphenol is considered to be an endocrine disruptor due to weak ability to mimic estrogen and subsequently to disrupt the natural balance of hormones in a given organism. Since the endocrine and immune systems share portions of common signaling pathways, it is conceivable that NP may also affect immune system functions. However, the influence of NP on inflammation and macrophages responsiveness to NP is unclear. Thus, the effects of NP were investigated on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in cultured macrophages. NP induced COX-2 protein and gene expression in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells and enhanced COX-2 promoter activity and prostaglandin E2 production. Transfection of RAW264.7 cells with hCOX-2 or various deletion and mutation promoter constructs revealed that the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) was the predominant mediator responsive to NP-induced effects. Moreover, transfection with pCRE-Luc plasmid followed by immunoblotting demonstrated that NP activated CRE sites and CRE binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. NP also increased nuclear CREB accumulation and CREB binding to the COX-2 promoter. Phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase, Akt, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) p38 and JNK were also significantly activated by NP. Our data demonstrate that NP induces COX-2 expression through the PI3-kinase/Akt/MAP kinases/CRE pathway. These findings provide insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the inflammatory responses induced by NP in macrophages.
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/YU.REPOSITORY/23381http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2010.511551
ISSN
1528-7394
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약학대학 > 약학부 > Articles
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