The purpose of this paper is to examine the competitiveness of Korean agricultural products relative to those of China and Japan, assuming that agricultural markets will be opened through free trade agreements. The competitiveness for twenty-five selected agricultural products is evaluated and compared using the relative price, trade specification index (TSI), and comparative advantage by countries (CAC) index. Also, correlation coefficients between the evaluation indexes are computed, and hypothesis tests for Spearman s rank correlation are conducted to see how the evaluation indexes are correlated with each other. Then, an attempt has been made to provide a single composite competitiveness index by incorporating the results from the three evaluation indexes so that the agricultural products examined can be ordered in terms of their competitiveness. The results of this study show that Korea has a strong disadvantage relative to China for almost all products, while it has a comparative advantage over Japan for most products. The results of correlation analysis show that price competitiveness alone does not have a significant influence on the pattern of Korea’s agricultural trade with China and Japan, implying that non-price factors also play an important role in determining the trade patterns across these countries. The analysis of the composite competitiveness index provides important information on the competitiveness rankings for the products considered. Sesame, red pepper,carrot, garlic, and ginger are identified as the products for which China is expected to have the most competitiveness over Korea, while Korea is expected to have the most competitive advantage over Japan with regard to tomato, strawberry, garlic, cucumber, red pepper, and mushroom.