13세기 이탈리아의 <성 프란체스코> 전기(傳記)제단화
- 13세기 이탈리아의 <성 프란체스코> 전기(傳記)제단화
- Other Titles
- The Vita Retable of <St. Francisco> in the 13th Century of Italy
- 성 프란체스코; 전기이콘; 전기제단화; 엘리아스 코르토나; 준타 피사노; Saint Francis; The Vita Icon; The Vita Retable; Elias Cortona; Giunta Pisano
- Issue Date
- 미술사학보, no.34, pp.201 - 232
- This study focused on the Vita Retable of <St. Francisco> made in 13th century, and to the end, the background of this times was first reviewed. The Franciscan Order and the Dominican Order are mendicant orders which were established in parallel in the first half of the 13th century. The friars lived a common life in the city and got interested in icons and holy pictures gradually since the last half of the 13th century. As mentioned is an anecdote of Francesco related to holy pictures in Celano's hagioraphy in 1247, the Francesco Order recognized the significance of icon as a religious instrument, earlier than any other order. The Vita Retable of <St. Francisco> in the first half of the 13th century is very exceptional in view of its production in a while after his death. Its style follows the Vita Icon which is composed of the Saint in center and the biographical scenes around him. Elias of Cortona who was a leading figure in the early history of Franciscan Order, made active use of the fine arts, especially 'speaking painting', a new painting style, which was available to communicate with the spectators.
In the Vita Retable of <St. Francisco> of Pescia (1235), to describe the Saint's image as similar as possible to that of Christ, it was schematized as icon, regardless of his real features. The scenes around the Saint also showed not his human aspects but his transcendental power like Christ describing the miracles, and further, incited the faith that the Saint could work miracles. This aimed evidently at advertising effectively the new ideal of the order and its founder. As the Vita Retable of <St. Francisco> served for the sermon of festive days, it filled the educational role to make the believers read visibly the Saint's life through it, which was different from the 'speaking painating' Crucifixion, established in similar times. However, it was by Giotto at the end of the 13th century that the Francesco's feature and life moved and fascinated the spectators, not limiting to a just literary role.
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